Articles: Earthing Design

Testing of Earthing Systems

Introduction Testing of earthing systems enables confirmation of the design values and safe operation in the case of a fault condition according to the applicable

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Fundamentals of Earthing Design

Downloads: Article as PDF Introduction This tutorial introduces key concepts used in the design of substation earthing/grounding systems. Important terminology is discussed including Grid Potential

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Earthing Software Benchmark Study

The Annex H in IEEE Standard 80-2013 contains benchmark case results for comparing and evaluating software tools and methodologies used for the analysis of substation earthing.

The results compare the simple equations from IEEE Std 80 with the results given by some of the commercially available software such as CDEGS, ETAP, SGW, SDWorkstation and WinIGS.

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Earthing modelling of concrete slabs

Switchgear in substations is installed on top of concrete slabs containing substantial quantities of steel reinforcement. Often the embedded steel reinforcement is bonded to the main earthing system and used to cost-effectively improve earthing electrical performance and safety.

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Use of Rods to Improve Grid Safety

To show how and when earthing rods can be used to improve the safety of earthing grids by reducing the grid resistance and potential rise (GPR) as well as surface, step and touch potentials.

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