Switchgear in substations is installed on top of concrete slabs containing substantial quantities of steel reinforcement. Often the embedded steel reinforcement is bonded to the main earthing system and used to cost-effectively improve earthing electrical performance and safety.
Industry is using software to perform electrical calculations and Educational institutions have recognised this
The purpose of transmission line grounding is to provide adequate lightning performance of the line; and effectively dissipate fault current avoiding the build-up of unsafe step and touch potentials around the tower base.
Accurately calculating voltage drop results in lower voltage drops which leads to smaller cable sizes and saves money.
Reference tables for diversity factors and energy demand from Wiring Rules AS/NZ 3000 for domestic and non-domestic installations.
An extensive study of earthing grids using SafeGrid software designed for determining performance of grids of arbitrary geometrical configuration in two layer soils has been undertaken. The study confirms work by Dawalibi and Mukhedkar undertaken using similar software called CDEGS®.
There are many different electrical engineering software packages available throughout the market that are built to different standards.
Here is a list of the 7 key questions to answer before purchasing electrical design software.
The current rating of bare conductors is affected by the conductor temperature, weather parameters, heat losses due to convection and radiation, the solar heat gain and conductor resistance, the calculation of which is governed by a steady-state and a non-steady-state heat balance equation.
Power cables are used for both ac and dc high voltage power transmission throughout the world. Technological advances, particularly those relating to jointing, has meant that cables can reliably be utilised at ever-increasing voltages and for a broader range of applications and installation conditions than ever before.
The calculation of current ratings for modern submarine cables is similar to that of land cables, with only a few nuances. Some important differences which affect the current rating lie in the areas the cables construction and installation conditions.